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Jeremias Bastingius (1551-1595) on the Death of Christ

July 28, 2009

Bastingius:

Christ bore our sins (sample):

1) Whereupon Paul doubts not to say that God has already set us with Christ in the heavenly places [Eph. 2:6.], so that we do not by a bare hope only look to heaven, but are already posses of it in Christ, who is our head, who making full satisfaction for our sins in that earthly and bodily pledge, which he took for us, has now taken possession of heaven in our name. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 195-196. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

2) Surely he himself knew better then we how we were to be instructed unto salvation, and therefore meant to prevent this superstition, and gave us the Scripture [ 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:19.] , and the lively preaching of the Gospel to direct us in his service: Therein it is taught that Christ died to bear our curse upon the cross, to satisfy for our sins by the sacrifice of his body, and to wash them away by his blood, finally, to reconcile us unto God the Father: to what purpose then was it to have everywhere in Churches so many crosses set up, of word, of stone, of silver and gold: the Gospel, and in a manner crucified before our eyes, and by hearing and reading of the Scripture, and meditation in the word, and by the use of the Sacraments, we might learn more, than out of a thousand crosses of wood or stone. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 427. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

3) 2. There is ground therefore being laid of our humbling before God, Christ teaches how we may be delivered from the guiltiness of our sins and from the punishment, whereas we are by no means able to satisfy God ourselves’ to wit, by forgiveness alone, which is the pardon of God’s free mercy, when he himself does freely cross out these debts, that is, sins, and imputes not the punishment thereof unto us, taking no recompense at our hands, but of his own mercy making satisfaction to the himself in Christ, who did deliver himself once for all for a recompense, and shed his blood for us

Then by these testimonies it is manifest, that one only hope of peace and favor, and deliverance from the punishment of sin does shine unto us, to wit, only by pardon or forgiveness of sins; yet lest any man might think that it agrees not with the righteousness of God, to forgive our debts freely, these contrarieties are very well reconciled by this distinction: to wit, that in respect of ourselves our sins are freely forgiven us, for which Christ has once for all made full satisfaction unto God, whose only ransom made for our sins is imputed unto us, as if we ourselves performed it, only if we lay hold upon Christ by faith, as he is offered in the Word, so apply him to ourselves for our own salvation. Hereof we gather the grievousness and weight of sin which was so heinous, that it could not be ransomed, but by the death of the only begotten Son of God; whereupon Christ himself says: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have life everlasting,” [Joh. 3:16.]. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 590-591, 591-592.. [Marginal references cited inline; marginal side-header not included; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Christ suffered the penalty due to all sinners:

1) We belong
to Christ by
the right
of redemption.

Therefore in very good order it is afterwards declared, how I came to belong to Christ: namely, because he by his precious blood fully satisfied for all my sins, has delivered me from the power of the Devil.

For when as a man, fallen from God by sin, because the inheritor of wrath and everlasting death, under the curse, shut out from all hope of salvation, estranged from all the blessings of God, the bondslave of Satan, a prisoner under the yoke of bondage, finally designed unto and already entangled in horrible destruction; it was necessary that Christ should come between to make intercession, that he should take upon himself and abide the punishment, which by the just judgement of God did hang over the head of all sinners, and should by his blood satisfy for those evils which made us hated of God: to conclude, should appease the endless wrath of God against sin, all which things the Scripture do witness to have been performed by Christ. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 4. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Sins of the world:

1)

Question.

37. What believes thou, when thou, when thou says, “He suffered?”

Answer.

That in the whole time of his life, which he continued here upon earth, but especially in the end thereof, he sustained both in his body and soul the wrath of God against the sin of all mankind, that by his suffering, as by the only sacrifice of reconciliation he might both deliver our souls from everlasting condemnation, and might also purchase for us the favor of God, righteousness, and everlasting life.

The Exposition.

The catechist passes from the birth of Christ, to us his suffering and death, leaving the history of his whole life because there is nothing in it worthy to be observed, (for it contains a consideration of that humility and obedience, which he performed to his Father), but because nothing is here handled, but that which so properly belongs to our redemption, that in a manner it contains in it the substance thereof, which especially consists in the suffering and death of Jesus Christ.

Now the catechist does very fitly handle 1. The suffering of Christ, that is, how great and how grievous it was and how far Christ did suffer. 2. The cause and fruit thereof in plain words laid down.

The suffering
of Christ.

The suffering of Christ he so describes, that under that name, he says, are understood all the miseries, torments and pains, which Christ did undergo from the first moment of his birth, even to the hour of his death: the Apostle seems to declare the same: “When the fullness of time was come, God sent his Son made of a woman, and made under the Law,” [Gal. 4:4.].

For as he that was free redeemed a prisoner, by yielding himself surety for him, and by taking bonds upon himself, does loose another from them: So Christ was content to become bound to observe the law, that he might purchase freedom for us. Again, “who when he was in the form of God, thought it no robbery to be equal with God, he abased himself, and taking upon him the shape of a servant, became like unto man,” [Phil. 2:6.]. To the Corinthians, “Ye know” (says he) “the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that he being rich, for your sakes became poor,” [1 Cor: 8:9.]: yea, when he had all sufficiency in his divine nature, which also he never lost: but he became poor, by taking unto him the nature of man: for then was he born at Bethlehem in a Stable, and found in a poor state, so that he had need of other men’s liberality: therefore this voluntary and willing abasing of himself that the first degree of his suffering: there followed this his miserable birth, his flight and banishment in Egypt, plainly testifying that the first race of his life was nothing but a suffering.

But especially, how many things he did suffer in the end of his life: let us begin at the driving of him forth into the desert, by the secret motion of the Holy Ghost [Mat. 4:2.]: what assaults of Satan did he not there sustain? What reproach suffered he not? Then indeed he was to give a taste, and to make trial of the warfare that he was to enter into, that he might come abroad with greater courage, and better prepared constantly to go through with the office committed to him of his Father; the laying of traps in his way by his enemies, the hatred of men, his often flight, the wearisomeness of his body are so many witnesses of his suffering, besides, that he was apprehended by the Soldiers, let to the High Priest, from them to the Judge, from Pilate to Herod: again mocked and scorned by the Soldiers, railed upon, despitefully treated, stricken with a reed, spit upon, crowned with thorns, beaten with whips, afterward led to the Cross, and to the execution, till he died and gave up the Ghost.

Christ suffered
both in
body & soul.

Whereby it is manifest that Christ did suffer throughout the whole time of his life: all which things, although they are very grievous, yet that is far the more grievous of all, that he suffered not in the body alone, but that in the end of his life he suffered in his soul the wrath of God against the sin of all mankind: and what is more heavy? what more intolerable then the wrath and vengeance of God? what comparison is there of that which he has an end, with that which he has no end? the wrath of God is endless: the strength of man in respect of it is utterly none at all, and is infinitely and too far too weak for the Majesty of God: this is so great wrath of God, Christ did indeed feel in his whole man’s nature, both in body and soul: for as he is God, in whom there is no change, he cannot suffer [Jam. 1:17.]. And as Ireneus writes learnedly and godily: “Christ was crucified, and died,” the Word, “resting, that is, not using his power, not putting forth his strength to the intent he might be crucified and die.”

Witnesses hereof are the servant prayer of Christ, his great entreaty and strong cry: In the Garden he did also groan, that his sweat fell down upon the ground, as it had been drops of blood, and that he needed to be comforted by an Angel [Mat. 26:38; Luke 22:43.]: There also he complained, “My soul is heavy unto death” [Mark. 14:34.]: there also he entreated for himself; “Father, if it be possible, take away this cup from me: yet not my will, but thy will be fulfilled.” Finally, hanging upon the cross, by reason of the heavy burden of God’s wrath, he cried out mightily; “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” [Psal. 22:2; Mat. 26:41; Heb. 5:7.], signifying by this strong cry, the delaying of God’s help, when he was in so great perplexity and fear, wherein at length he was heard, and delivered from it: all which things the Creed comprehends in the word Suffered, to wit, the whole course of Christ’s obedience: although the Scripture, the more certainty to point out how Christ has saved us, does peculiarly and properly apply it to his death, as we shall afterward hear.

The cause
and fruit of
Christ’s
suffering.

2. But what the cause is why Christ suffered such extremity, and felt so sharply the wrath of God burning against him, that is not properly to be sought for in Christ, but in us; our sin, and our disobedience, the sins, I mean, of all mankind, which Christ was content to have imputed unto him, and in our stead to be punished at God’s hands for them, as it has been foretold by the Prophet. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 152-155. [Marginal references cited inline; marginal side-headers included; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.] [Cf, Ursinus’ own exposition on this same catechism Q&A.]

2) The false Doctrine.

…Secondly, seeing the suffering of Christ is the only sacrifice of reconciliation for the sins of the whole world, they wander from the right path of salvation, and do injury to Christ, whosoever, not content with him and his sacrifice, do devise to themselves other means to appease God, and two ways whereby to wipe away the punishment due unto us; to wit, the satisfaction of Christ and of the Satins, which is to deny the blood of Christ to be only sufficient for forgiveness of sins, for reconciliation, for satisfaction [1 Joh. 2; Rom. 3:25.], unless the want of it, being as it were dried up and spent, to supplied and made up by some other, as by Peter, Paul, and other Martyrs, in whose blood the Popish pardons1 do put satisfaction: against which robbing of God, excellently spoke long ago Leo the B. of Rome: “although the death of the saints has been precious in the sight of God, yet the slaying of no guiltless man was a sacrifice for the sins of the world: the righteous received, they did not give crowns, and examples of patience did grow of the courageousness of the faithful, not gifts of righteousness: for their death were singular: neither did any of them by his end pay any other men’s debt: forasmuch as there was one Lord Christ in whom all were crucified, all died, all were buried, all rose again,” [2 Cor. 1:6-7; Phil. 1: 24-25; 1 Cor. 1:13.]. And Augustine to the same effect: “Although” (says he) “we die brethren for brethren, yet the blood of no Martyr is shed for forgiveness of sins, which Christ died for us: neither did he bestow this upon us that we should follow him in it, but that we should all of us rejoice for it. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 158 and 159. [Marginal references cited inline, with marginal comment cited as footnote; some reformatting; extended italics removed; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.] [C.f., Kimedonius’ same citation of this comment and another like citation from Leo.]

3) The third error is, that whereas in the Supper we are taught that Christ once offered himself for the sins of mankind, and that once upon the Altar of the Cross, by which offering he deserved for us full forgiveness of all our sins: The Romanists teach, that even at this day Christ does not indeed offer himself, but is offered by the Priests unto God his Father: not that he offered himself once by his everlasting Spirit, but that he must daily be offered of them, to the end that we, may obtain forgiveness of sins, then which what can be devised or spoken more gross? Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 158 and 159. [Marginal references cited inline, some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Sins of the world in a non-controversial context:

1) And first for the General providence, whereby God stands by the whole world, and rules it, even this only testimony is clear to prove it. That when God would punish the sins of the world with waters, that he might not utterly destroy all mankind, he commanded an Ark to be provided, wherein the seed, not of mankind alone, but even of all living creatures might be preserved, from thence not long after he might bring again, the increase of all sorts of living creatures unto the world [Gen. 7:1.]: and that not extraordinarily by creating new men and new living creatures, as he was very well able to do; but by an ordinary way, and already provided to keep male and female of every sort. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 102. [Marginal references cited inline, some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

On the sufficiency and efficiency of Christ’s death:

1)

20. Is salvation then restored by Christ to all men that perished in Adam?

Answer.

Not to all, but only to those who are en-grafted into him by true faith, and do lay hold upon all his benefits.

Here he prevents an abjection : for seeing it confessed that Christ is the redeemer of mankind, as the Gospel does teach, some man may ask the question also to salvation in Christ; and if not so, who then are restored unto salvation? To which question the answer is plain; namely, that not all, nor every man is restored to salvation by Christ, but only those who believe in him.

And that all are not saved by Christ the Mediator, is so true and so well known out of the Scriptures, as nothing more, Christ himself bearing witness: “Not everyone that says, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven”: and “Narrow is the gate, and straight is the way that leads unto life, and few there be that find it” [Mat. 7:13, 14; Mat. 25:34; Mat. 22:14.]; to this may be added the description of the last judgment, and that which he says elsewhere, “Many are called, but few are chosen,” [Mat. 22:14.].

Although nevertheless that abides true, which John affirms, that “Christ is the Propitiation for our sins, and not for ours alone, but for the sins of the whole world,” [1. Joh. 2:2.]: because Christ’s death is indeed sufficient for all mankind, but effectual only for the elect, who shall believe in his Name, to whom also he reveals the will of his Father, and whom he regenerates by his Holy Spirit, whom he preserves; and in the end shall crown with everlasting glory [Joh. 17:20; Mat. 11:27; Joh. 15:15; Joh. 6:45; Rom. 8:30.]. For John had no other purpose, but to make the sacrifice of Christ common to the whole church” [Joh. 11:52.], so that under the name (all) he comprehends not the reprobate, but notes out of those, who (as I said) should also believe, and were scattered throughout divers coasts of the world. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 68-69.[Marginal references cited inline, some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Christ brought salvation to mankind:

1)

18. But who is that Mediaor, who is both true God, and true and perfect Man?

Answer.

Our Lord Jesus Christ, who is made unto us of God, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and perfect redemption.

The Exposition.

Of the quality and condition of the person of the Mediator has been before spoken; now the question is asked, “who he is”: for we must have some certainty of him, for otherwise how shall we call upon him, when we know him not? How shall we be sure that the payment is made, when we know not the surety? Therefore that our Lord Jesus Christ is the only Mediator, true God and true Man, and also perfectly righteous, it is proved by the testimony of the Apostle, comprising in a short sentence of the whole mystery of our redemption, and teaching both from whence we have such a Mediator, and also by what means, with what and how precious treasures he being furnished, brought salvation to mankind. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 62. [Marginal references cited inline; marginal side-header not included; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Christ given up for mankind:

1) That the Mediator
was given unto
us of God.

Paul teaches, that this Mediator was given unto us of God: as if he had said, God of his mere mercy gave him unto us, and bestowed him upon us, to deliver from sin, death, and the curse, and to make full satisfaction to his justice, and finally, to repair in us the image of God.

Where we must acknowledge the exceeding goodness and mercy of God toward mankind, who when they had nothing before their eyes but the gulf of condemnation, wherein they were all to be swallowed up, he gave this only and most dear pledge, to wit, his only begotten Son, by his sacrifice and intercession, to reconcile them unto himself [Joh. 3:16; Rom. 5:8; Rom. 8:32.], which benefit, according to the worthiness of it, can never be sufficiently valued and commended. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 62. [Marginal references cited inline; marginal side-header cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Christ the redeemer of men:

1) Therefore it was needful that the Redeemer of men should be both a true man, that is, having the true body and soul of a man, and also just, and not defiled with any spot of sin. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 61.

The Gospel:

1) The reason of
the name and
definition of
the Gospel.

The word Gospel signifies glad tidings, having the name euagglion of euaggello; that is, to bring tidings whereupon, for that the knowledge of salvation is taken for the doctrine comprised in the Old and New Testament, concerning our Messiah and Savior, in whom is promised and preached to them that believe in him, perfect deliverance from sin, death, and the everlasting curse, then which there could be none more happy or welcome tidings to all mankind.

The author
of the Gospel.

The Author of the Gospel, that is, of this saving doctrines is shown to be God himself, who as he did from everlasting decree how he would redeem mankind, being through sin brought under the danger of condemnation and everlasting death: so by and by after the fall of man he did reveal this promise: “The seed of the woman” (which is Christ), “shall bruise the Serpent’s head,”[Gen. 3:15.], that is, shall overcome the Devil, and shall bring unto men fill deliverance from all misery. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 66-67. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

2)

20. Is salvation then restored by Christ to all men that perished in Adam?

Answer.

Not to all, but only to those who are engrafted into him by true faith, and do lay hold upon all his benefits.

The Exposition.

Here he prevents an objection: for seeing it is confessed that Christ is the redeemer of mankind, as the Gospel does teach; some man may ask the question, whether all we that perish in Adam are restored also to salvation in Christ; and if not so, who are then restored unto salvation? to which question the answer is plain; namely, that not all, nor every man is restored to salvation by Christ, but only those who believe in him. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 68. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

3) Of true faith.
The Exposition.

We have declared that there is but one means of deliverance, to save us from so miserable destruction, where Christ is revealed to be true God and true man, the Mediator and Redeemer, by whose hand the heavenly Father according to his exceeding goodness and mercy having compassion o us, would succor us, if so be we be engrafted into Christ by true faith, and do apply all his benefits unto ourselves. Now we must consider what manner faith this is, whereby men receive the possession of the Kingdom of Heaven, who are by nature condemned in Adam, for that not every opinion or persuasion is able to bring so great a matter to pass; and so much the rather, because the devil is so hot an enemy to the saving doctrine of faith: for because he was not able to hinder the decree of God touching the redemption of mankind, how either to take away, or to corrupt, or to weaken this instrument whereby we apply the same unto ources, for he knows that which is written, “Whosoever believes not, upon him, abides the wrath of God,” [John 3:16.]. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 73. [Marginal references cited inline; some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

4) The knowledge
of God
by his works.

Neither is that any other way, wherein GOD has offered himself to be known by his works, virtues, and properties. In the creation of heaven and earth shines his almighty power, that he holds all things in his hand, and makes them to abide and continue in him: his wisdom, by the most orderly disposing of them: his goodness, because there was not cause why he should create all these things, neither can he by any other reason be moved to preserve them, but for the very same: his righteousness in governing, because he punishes offenders, and delivers the innocent: his mercy, that in so great patience he bears with the frowardness of men: his truth, by that he is unchangeable.

In the redemption of mankind shines and gloriously appears the righteousness of God: first in that he has punished sinners, then he has exalted the obedience of the Law, and forgiving sins: his goodness, that he has done this for his own sake; his mercies, in that when there was nothing in us but sin and wretchedness, he had compassion on us: his wisdom, in that he found out this of al other the best way to redeem us, and that he ordained it from everlasting: his almighty power, in that he has so repaired mankind being decayed: his truth, in that he has remembered his promises. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 558-559. Some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

Present (effectual) redemption and future redemption:

1) Last of all, by Redemption, he signifies that we by his benefit are delivered as well from the bondage of sin, as from all misery that issues from thence: although this benefit of perfect redemption shall be fully accomplished in the last day. Jeremias Bastingius, An Exposition or Commentary Vpon the Catechisme of Christian Religion, which is taught in the Schooles and Churches both of the Low Countries, and of the Dominions of the Countie Palatine (Printed at London by Iohn Legatt, Printer to the University of Cambridge, 1614), 63. [Some reformatting; some spelling modernized; and underlining mine.]

[Notes: From the above, we can see that Jonathan Moore, in his English Hypothetical Uiversalism is wrong when he attempts to suggest that Bastingius (and Kimedoncius ) was opposed to Usser and Davenant on the sufficiency of Christ, and that Bastingius, along with Kimedoncius were examples of soteriological “particularism.”2]

_____________________

1The marginal reference adds: The contrariety of popish pardons and of Christ. See Calv. Instit. lib.3. cap.5. Sect.2. Viguer, Instit. c.16.6. v. 19. and 10. to the four Ecclesiae Epist. ad. Paul. 18.

2Jonathan D. More, English Hypothetical Universalism: John Preston and the Softening of Reformed Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2007), 67-68.

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