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Primary Sources

Amyraut, Moyse, Brief Treatise on Predestination and its Dependent Principles, trans. Richard Lum, [United States:] no publisher, 1985.

Baxter, Richard, Catholick Theologie. London: Printed by Robert White, for Nevill Simmons at the Princess Arms in St. Pauls Church-yard, 1675.

________. Universal Redemption of Mankind by the Lord Jesus Christ. London: Printed for John Salusbury at the Rising Sun in Cornhill, 1694.

Bergius, Johannes, The Pearle of Peace & Concord. Or A Treatise of Pacification Betwixt the dissenting Churches of Christ. London: Printed by T.C. For John Rothwell, at the Fountain and Bear in Cheap-side; and John Wright, at the Kings Head in the Old Bayly 1655.

Calvin, J. Calvin’s Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984.

________. Calvin’s Commentaries. eds., D. F. Torrance & T.F. Torrance, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1972.

________. Sermons on Deuteronomy. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1987.

________. Sermons on Jeremiah. Trans., by B. Reynolds. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

________. Sermons on the Epistles to Timothy and Titus. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1983.

________. Sermons on Galatians. New Jersey. Old Paths Publications, 1995.

________. Sermons on Ephesians. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1973.

________. The Gospel According to Isaiah: Seven Sermons on Isaiah 53 Concerning the Passion and Death of Christ. Trans by L., Nixon, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1953.

________. Sermons on Isaiah’s Prophecy of the Death and Passion of Christ. Trans., by T.H.L. Parker. London: James Clarke & Co., 1965.

________. The Deity of Christ and Other Sermons, trans., by L. Nixon. New Jersey: Old Paths Publications, 1997.

________. The Bondage and Liberation of the Will. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1996.

Davenant, John, “Dissertation on the Death of Christ” in An Exposition of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Colossians. London: Hamilton, Adams and Co., 1833.

Kimedoncius, Jacob, The Redemption of Mankind: Three Books: Wherein the Controversy of the Universality of the Redemption and Grace by Christ, and his Death for All Men, is Largely Handled, trans., by Hugh Ince. London: Imprinted by Felix Kingston, 1598.

Ursinus, Z, The Commentary of Dr. Zacharias Ursinus on the Heidelberg Catechism, Phillipsburg, New Jersey: 1994.

Secondary Sources

Armstrong, B. Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Bell, Charles, Calvin and Scottish Theology: The Doctrine of Assurance, Edinburgh: Handsel Press, 1985. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Boersma, H. A Hot Peppercorn: Richard Baxter’s Doctrine of Justification in Its Seventeenth-Century Context of Controversy. Zoetermeer: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum, 1993.

Clifford, A.C. Atonement and Justification: English Evangelical Theology 1640-1790: An Evaluation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

________. Calvinus: Authentic Calvinism: A Clarification. Charenton: Reformed Publishing, 1996.

Cunningham, William, Historical Theology, Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 1979.

Crisp, Oliver D. An American Augustinian: Sin and Salvation in the Dogmatic Theology of William G. T. Shedd. UK: Paternoster, 2007.

Dabney, R.L. Discussions: Evangelical and Theological. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 1982.

________. Lectures in Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1972.

________. Christ Our Penal Substitute. Richmond, VA: The Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1898.

De Jong, J. (ed) Crisis in the Reformed Churches, Grand Rapids, Mi: Reformed Fellowship, 1968.

Douty, Norman F. The Death of Christ; A Treatise Which Answers the Question: “Did Christ Die Only for the Elect?” Swengel, Pa.: Reiner Publications, 1972.

Field, David P. Rigide Calvinisme in a Softer Dresse: The Moderate Presbyterianism of John Howe, 1630-1705. Edinburgh: Rutherford House, 2004. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Fesko, J.V. Diversity Within the Reformed Tradition: Supra- and Infralapsarianism in Calvin, Dort and Westminister. Jackson, MS: Reformed Academic Press, 1999. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Gamble, R.C. ed., An Elaboration of the Theology of John Calvin, vol 8, New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.

Hall, Basil, “Calvin against the Calvinists,” in John Calvin. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966, 19-37.

Helm, P. Calvin and the Calvinists. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 1982.

Hodge, A.A. Outlines of Theology. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 1983.

________.The Atonement. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1868.

Hodge, C. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1981.

Jenkyn, Thomas W, The Extent of the Atonement in its Relation to God and the Universe. Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 1859.

Kendall, R.T. Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649. UK: Paternoster Press, 1997. [First published as a dissertation, and originally published by OUP in 1981.]

Kennedy, K.D. Union with Christ and the Extent of the Atonement in Calvin. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2002.

Kuiper, H. Calvin on Common Grace. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1928.

Lachman, David C. The Marrow Controversy, 1718-1723: An Historical and Theological Analysis. Edinburgh, Rutherford House Books, 1988. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Lightner, Robert Paul. The Death Christ Died; A Case for Unlimited Atonement. Des Plaines, Ill., Regular Baptist Press [1967].

Macleod, John. Scottish Theology, Edinburgh: Knox Press, 1974.

Mitchell, Alex F. & Struthers, John, ed., Minutes of the Sessions of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, Edmonton, Canada: Still Waters Revival Books, 1991.

Moore, Jonathan D. English Hypothetical Universalism: John Preston and the Softening of Reformed Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2007.

Morison, James, The Nature of the Atonement. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co, 1890.

________. The Extent of the Propitiation. London: Thomas Ward & Co, 1842.

________. The Extent of the Atonement. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co, 1882. [Revised Edition.]

________. Vindication of the Universality of the Atonement. In Reply to the Recently Published Work of the Rev. Dr. Candlish of Edinburgh, EntitledThe Atonement, its Reality, Completeness, and Extent.” Glasgow: A. Wallace & Co. 1861.

Muller, R.A. Christ and the Decree. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

________.The Unaccommodated Calvin, New York: OUP, 2000.

Owen, J. The Death of Death. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 1983.

Pendleton, James M. The Atonement. Philadelphia: American Baptists Publications Society, 1885.

________. The Fatherhood of God in its Relation to the Atonement of Christ. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1876.

Peterson, R. A. Calvin and the Atonement, New Jersey: Mentor, 1999. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Rainbow, J.H. The Will of God and The Cross. Pennsylvania: Pickwick Publications, 1990. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Robertson, A. History of the Atonement Controversy, in Connexion with the Succession Church. Edinburgh: William Oliphant & Sons, 1846.

Rudisill, Dorus P. The Doctrine of the Atonement in Jonathan Edwards and His Successors. New York: Poseidon, Books 1971.

Shedd, W.T.G. Dogmatic Theology. Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1969.

Smeaton, G. The Apostles’ Doctrine of the Atonement. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1957.

Symington, William. The Nature, Extent, and Results of the Atonement. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Tract and Sunday School Society, 1837.

Taylor, Abraham. An Address to Young Students in Divinity, by way of Caution against some Paradoxes which lead to Doctrinal Antinomianism. London: Printed for John Oswald, at the Rose and Crown in the Poultry, near Stocks-Market, 1739. This one of the earliest critiques of the denial of duty-faith and defense of the free offer; short work, but quite devastating.

Thomas, G.M. The Extent of the Atonement: A Dilemma for Reformed Theology from Calvin to the Consensus, UK: Paternoster: 1997. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Thomas, O. The Atonement Controversy: In Welsh Theological Literature and Debate, 1707-1841. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth, 2002.

Trueman, C. The Claims of Truth: John Owen’s Trinitarian Theology. Cumbria: Paternoster Press, 1998.

Van Stam, F.P. The Controversy Over the Theology of Saumur, 1635-1650. Amsterdam: APA-Holland University Press. 1988. [Originally published as a dissertation.]

Walker, James. The Theology and Theologians of Scotland: Chiefly of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1888.

Weeks, William, R. “A Dialogue on the Atonement,” in The Atonement: Discourse and Treatises, ed. Edwards A Park. Boston: Congregational Board of Publication, 1859. [While one may not agree with all of Weeks’ positive affirmations, his critiques of limited expiation are penetrating and sharp.]

Theses and Dissertations

Archbald, Paul N. “A Comparative Study of John Calvin and Theodore Beza on the Doctrine of the Extent of the Atonement. ” Ph.D diss., Westminster Theological Seminary, 1998.

Berry, H.E. “The Amyraldian Controversy an its Implications for the Lutheran-Reformed Unity in the Doctrine of Grace.” B.D thesis, Concordia Theological Seminary, 1970.

Bobick, M.W. “Owen’s Razor: The Role of Ramist Logic in the Covenant Theology of John Owen.” Ph.D. diss., Drew University, 1996.

Chambers, N.A. “A Critical Examination of John Owen’s Argument for Limited Atonement in the Death of Death in the Death of Christ,” Th.M. thesis, Reformed Theological Seminary, 1998.

Daniel, C. “Hyper-Calvinism and John Gill.” Ph.D diss., University of Edinburgh, 1983.

Hillin, William D. “Richard Vines (1600?-1656): A Moderate Divine in the Westminster Assembley.” Ph.D diss., University of Iowa, 1967.

Godfrey, W.R. “Tensions Within International Calvinism: The Debate on the Atonement at the Synod of Dort, 1618- 1619.” Ph.D diss., Stanford University, 1974.

Grohman, D.D. “The Genevan Reactions to the Saumur Doctrine of Hypothetical Universalism, 1635-1685.Th.D. diss, Knox College in cooperation with Toronto School of Theology. 1971

Harmon, Matthew Paul, “Moyse Amyraut’s Six Sermons: Directions for Amyrauldian Studies.” Th.M. thesis, Westminster Theological Seminary, 2008.

Hawkes, R.C. “The Logic of Christ in John Owen, D.D.: An Analysis, Exposition, and Defense of John Owen’s Puritan Theology of Grace.” Ph.D diss., Westminster Theological Seminary, 1987.

Ives, Robert B. “The Theology of Wolfgang Musculus (1497-1563).” Ph.D diss., University of Manchester, 1965.

McGowan, Andrew, “The Federal Theology of Thomas Boston (1676-1732).” Ph. D diss., University of Aberdeen, 1989.

McCoy, S.W. “The Covenant Theology of Johannes Cocceius.” Ph.D diss., Yale University, 1956.

Nicole, R.” Moyse Amyraut (1596-1664) and the Controversy on Universal Grace: First Phase (1634-1637).” Ph.D diss., Harvard University, 1966.

Nomura, S. “The Extent of the Atonement in Calvin’s Concept of the Preaching of the Gospel.” Th.M thesis, Western Theological Seminary, 1991.

Packer, J.I. “The Redemption and Restoration of Man in the Thought of Richard Baxter.” Ph.D diss., University of Oxford, Trinity, 1954.

Proctor, Laurance. “The Theology of Moïse Amyraut Considered as a Reaction Against Seventeenth-Century Calvinism.” Ph.D. diss., University of Leeds, 1952.

Shultz, Gary L. “A Biblical and Theological Defense of a Multi-Intentioned View of the Atonement.” Ph.D diss., Southern Baptist Theologican Seminary, 2008.

Wenkel, David, “John Bunyan’s Theory of Atonement in His Early Doctrinal and Polemic Works Amyraldian or Particular?” M.A. thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 2004.


Beeke J.R. “Faith and Assurance in the Heidelberg Catechism and its Primary Composers: A Fresh Look at the Kendall Thesis.” Calvin Theological Journal 27 (1992) : 39-67.

Beaton, Donald , “The Marrow of Modern Divinity.” The Princeton Theological Review 4 (1906) : 317-338.

Bell, C, “Was Calvin a Calvinist.” Scottish Journal of Theology, 36 (1983) : 535-540.

Boersma, H., “Calvin and the Extent of the Atonement.” Evangelical Quarterly 64 (1992) : 333-355.

Chang, A., “Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement.” Bibiotheca Sacra 142 (1985) : 52-63.

Clifford, A.C., “The Gospel and Justification.” Evangelical Quarterly 57 (1985) : 247-267.

Duke, T.H., “An Exegetical Analysis of 2 Peter 3:9.” Faith and Mission 16 (1999) : 6-13.

Godfrey, W. R., “Reformed Thought on the Extent of the Atonement to 1618.” Westminster Theological Journal 37 (1975) : 133-171.

Helm, P., “Calvin, English Calvinism and the Logic of the Doctrinal Development.” The Scottish Journal of Theology 34 (1981) : 179-185.

________. “The Logic of Limited Atonement.” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 3 (1985) : 47-54.

Hodge, A.A., “The Consensus of the Reformed Confessions.” The Presbyterian Review 5 (1884) : 265-304.

Kennard, D.W., “Petrine Redemption: Its Meaning and Extent.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30 (1987) 399-405.

Leahy, F.S. “Calvin and the Extent of the Atonement.” Reformed Theological Journal 8 (1992) : 55-64.

Macleod, Donald, “Dr T.F. Torrance and Scottish Theology.” Evangelical Quarterly 72 (2000) 57-72.

M’Crie, Charles, “Studies in Scottish Ecclesiastical Biography.” The British and Foreign Evangelical Review 33 (1884) 669-719.

M’Crie, Thomas, “The Marrow Controversy.” The British and Foreign Evangelical Review 2 (1865) 411-440.

Moore, J.D. “Calvin Versus The Calvinists? The Case of John Preston (1587-1628).” Reformation & Renaissance Review 6 (2004) : 327-348.

Muller, Richard, “Divine Covenants, Absolute and Conditional: John Cameron and the Early Orthodox Development of Reformed Covenant Theology.” Mid-America Theological Journal, 17 (2006) : 11-56.

________. “Toward the Pactum Salutis: Locating the Origins of a Concept.” Mid-America Theological Journal 18 (2008) : 11-65.

________. “A Tale of Two Wills? Calvin and Amyraut on Ezekiel 18:23.” Calvin Theological Journal 44 (2009) : 211-225.

Murray, John, “Calvin on the Extent of the Atonement.” Banner of Truth 234 (1983) : 20-22.

Nicole, R. “Calvin’s View of the Extent of the Atonement.” Westminster Theological Journal 47 (1985) : 197-225.

________.“Covenant, Universal Call and Definite Atonement.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 43 (1995) : 403-11.

________.“The Doctrine of Definite Atonement in the Heidelberg Catechism.” The Gordon Review 7 (1964) : 138-145.

Nischan, Bodo, “John Bergius: Irenicism and the Beginning of Official Religious Toleration in Brandenburg-Prussia.” Church History, 51 (1982) : 389-404.

Philip, W.J.U. “The Marrow and the Dry Bones: Ossified Orthodoxy and the Battle for the Gospel in Eighteenth-Century Scottish Calvinism.” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 15 (1997 :) 27-37.

Rouwendal, Pieter, L. “Calvin’s Forgotten Classical Position on the Extent of the Atonement.” Westminster Theological Journal 17 (2008) : 317-335.

Shultz , Gary L., Jr., “God’s Purposes in the Atonement for the Nonelect.” Bibliotheca Sacra 165 (2008) : 145-163.

________. Why a Genuine Universal Gospel Call Requires an Atonement that Paid for the Sin of All.” Evangelical Quarterly 82 (2010) : 111-123.

Stehle, S. “The Extent of the Atonement and the Synod of Dort.” Westminster Theological Journal 51 (1989) : 1-23.

________. “Universal Grace and Amyraldianism.” Westminster Theological Journal 51 (1989) : 345-57.

Suhany, Alan Michel. John Calvin and the Extent of the Atonement Revisited. Paper presented at the 45th National Conference, Tyson’s Corner, VA, November 18-20, 1993. A good article.

Thomas, G.M. “Calvin and English Calvinism: A Review Article.” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 16 (1998) : 111-127.

Thornbury, John. “God’s Universal Call to Men.” Reformation and Revival Journal 2 (1993) : 99-113.

Troxel, A.G. “Amyraut ‘at’ the Assembly: The Westminster Confession of Faith and the Extent of the Atonement.” Presbyterion 22 (1996) : 43-55.

Tylenda, Joseph N. “Girolamo Zanchi and John Calvin.” Calvin Theological Journal 10 (1975) : 101-141.

Venema, C.P. “Heinrich Bullinger’s Correspondence on Calvin’s Doctrine of Predestination, 1551-1553.” The Sixteenth Century Journal 27 (1986) : 435-50.

Welsh, R.B. “Rev. Dr. James Richards and His Theology.” The Presbyterian Review 5, no 19 (1884) : 401-442.

Wenger, Thomas. “The New Perspective on Calvin: Responding to the Recent Calvin Interpretations.” JETS 50 (2007) : 311-328.

Johnson, Marcus. “New or Nuanced Perspective on Calvin? Reply to Thomas Wenger.” JETS 51 (2008) : 543-558.

Wenger, Thomas. “Theological Spectacles and a Paradigm of Centrality: A Reply to Marcus Johnson. JETS 51 (2008) : 559-572.

Wenkel, D. “John Bunyan’s Soteriology During His Pre-Prison Period (1656-1659): Amyraldian or High Calvinist?” Scottish Journal of Theology 58 (2005) : 333-352.

Online Essays

Gatiss, Lee, Shades of opinion within a generic Calvinism: The Particular Redemption Debate at the Westminster Assembly, (accessed 11 January 2007).

Hartog, Paul, A Word for the World: Calvin on the Extent of the Atonement (accessed 14 July 2009).

Hendryx, John, Is it God’s Desire for All Men to Be Saved? (accessed 7 july 2009).

Richard A. Muller, Was Calvin a Calvinist? Or, Did Calvin (or Anyone Else in the Early Modern Era) Plant the “TULIP”?, (accessed 6 November 2009).

Piper, John, Are There Two Wills in God? (accessed 4 Oct 2005).

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